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Tsabong North Project


The Tsabong North Project, located approximately 100 km north of the town of Tsabong in southwestern Botswana, is 1,545 km2 in size. It is comprised of anomalous concentrations of kimberlite indicators and has large geo-botanical features. Pangolin has already identified more than 50 drill-ready aeromagnetic targets in the Project area, several of which have surface areas exceeding 20 hectares. Exploration activities in the area are guided in part by the recommendations of a National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report prepared for the Project.
The Project is situated on the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton, immediately north of the diamondiferous Tsabong kimberlite field that hosts the M-1 pipe, the largest known diamondiferous kimberlite pipe in the world ( Dr. Daniels, Pangolin’s single largest shareholder, was part of the Falconbridge Team that developed the geological model of the 180 hectare M-1 pipe that was discovered in 1980. He was also directly involved in the discovery of several new kimberlites in the Tsabong kimberlite field.
Pangolin’s soil sampling has produced highly anomalous concentrations of kimberlite indicators within the Project area. Microprobe analyses of indicator minerals have confirmed the presence of G10 garnets, indicating the presence of a mantle conducive to the crystallization of diamonds. A number of indicators occur, including remnants of kelyphite that indicate close proximity to kimberlite. Enzyme-leach trace element results are consistent with orientation trace element results over known kimberlites near the Project.


Pangolin’s current drill core results are comparable to the recovered G10 garnets from soil samples in the project area. This suggests there is more than one kimberlite source in the Project area.


G10 Garnets found in Soil Samples at Project Area

This photo of the TSB Garnets was taken under a stereo microscope.


High Chromium v. Low Calcium Pyrope Garnets Are Excellent Indicators For The Potential Of Diamonds


Note that the higher Cr2O3 (chromium oxide – Y axis) and lower CaO (calcium oxide – X axis) the better. This is one reason why a G10 garnet is rated slightly higher than a G9.

The chromium oxide values vs. the calcium oxide values above to the left of the line (G10 garnets) are the most sought after as they best show the potential for a kimberlite to host diamonds. The G9 garnets at the top of just right of the line are also very good indicators.

Note the similarity of the micro-probe results of the pyrope garnets plotted on Pangolin’s Tsabong North Project to that of Debswana’s (De Beers and the Government of Botswana) Letlhakane Mine. It is noteworthy that Letlhakane had over six billion in sales in 2012 (

G9 Garnets and Heavy Minerals found in Core Sample at 22 meters – 26 March 2013

These photos of G9 Garnets and other heavy minerals were all taken under field conditions with a hand-held camera.

Garnet Chemistry Mineral Graph Of The G9 Garnets Pictured Above – 26 March 2013


The significance of finding 45 confirmed, mantle-derived indicator garnets in a 568.5 gram core sample

Independent lab analysis by Kelowna, B.C.-based CF Mineral Laboratories Inc. returned a significant number of high pressure garnets associated with the diamond stability field (the area of the Earth’s mantle with the heat and pressure required to produce diamonds).This confirms a high exploration potential for new diamondiferous kimberlite pipes in the Project area.

Microprobe analysis of a 568.5 gram core sample produced 45 confirmed, mantle-derived indicator garnets.

The diamond drill core barrel used is a TNW standard diameter producing a 61 mm diameter core and the hole was drilled vertically. The garnets were liberated from a core sample taken at a depth of 22 metres below the surface. The core sample came from a glauconitic fine grained sandstone interval that extends from a depth of 16.2 m to 33.5 m. This unit presented very high counts of garnet grains on visual inspection and the sample submitted was picked as representative of the intersection.

Dr. Leon Daniels, Chairman of Pangolin, stated, “Over my 30 years of diamond exploration in Botswana, I have never personally seen such a high concentration of garnets, including high pressure garnets, in a drill core sample area of this size. We are very encouraged by our early drill results at our Tsabong North Project.”


    The Microprobe analysis of the 45 mantle-derived indicator garnets drill core sample produced (graph above) produced 568.5 grams, equivalent to approximately 2,500 mantle-derived indicator garnets normalized in relation to a standard exploration surface soil sample. i.e. The core sample is 568.9 grams of material and if we normalise this sample back to 32 kg we have to multiply it by a factor of 56.2489, and also apply the factor to the 45 garnets that results in the product of a normalisation garnet sample of 2,531 (rounded 2,500 garnets).

    The definition of a standard exploration surface soil sample is a fixed volume of unscreened soil material is collected from an area within a 50m radius of the sample point which is GPS controlled. The volume of sample and sample area were selected to increase the probability of recovering kimberlitic indicators. Typical weight is about 32 kg per sample. The samples are dry-screened out in the field using 2mm, 425 micron (µ) and 180µ screens. The +2mm fraction is discarded. The -2mm+425µ samples are taken for KIM analyses and the -180µ samples for trace element analysis.

Below is a detailed aeromagnetic survey over half the subject property

Below are geobotanical photos of Smuts Pan, Tsabong North Project.

The Aeromagnetics for the Tsabong North Project

Tsabong North Project - Photos

Government Cutline into Tsabong

Tsabong North Project
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